I came across this article which describes the elementary, secondary and advanced school lifestyle of Orthodox Jews.

While the author focuses on the Ultra-Orthodox community, my more modern Orthodox community is virtually identical to the experience the author describes.
He translates traditional study into academic jargon, and I am not sure which a layman might understand better:-)
I recommend this article to get a feeling about traditional Jewish Torah study, not necessarily with any connection to the political issue the author is responding to.
If you have any questions about the article, I am delighted to try to respond!